Nigeria

 
Status: has never stopped indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation

Nigeria is one of only three countries in the world with ongoing wild poliovirus transmission, alongside Afghanistan and Pakistan. The country is also affected by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreaks. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is focusing on refining surveillance and closing immunity gaps, and maintaining political commitment, financial resources and technical support at all levels.

Polio this week in Nigeria

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.  The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains four and no cases have been reported in 2017.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016 in Monguno Local Government Area (LGA), Borno.
  • Nigeria continues to implement emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country.
  • The response is part of a broader regional outbreak response, coordinated with neighbouring countries, in particular the Lake Chad sub-region, including northern Cameroon, parts of Central African Republic, Chad and southern Niger.
  • Detection of the polio cases in Nigeria underscores the risk posed by low-level undetected transmission and the urgent need to strengthen subnational surveillance.

International Health Regualtions

Nigeria is classified by the International Health Regulations (IHR) as a state infected with WPV1, cVDPV1 or cVDPV3 with potential risk of international spread, and as a state infected with cVDPV2.  It is therefore subject to temporary recommendations as of April 2017.

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Key at-risk: no longer poliovirus-infected, but at high risk of outbreaks
Outbreak: has stopped indigenous WPV circulation but affected by outbreak of imported WPV or circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus
Endemic: has never stopped indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) circulation

Travel advice

WHO’s International Travel and Health recommends that all travellers to polio-affected areas be fully vaccinated against polio. Residents (and visitors for more than 4 weeks) from infected areas should receive an additional dose of OPV or inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) within 4 weeks to 12 months of travel.

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