This Week

Polio this week as of 21 February 2018

  • New on http://polioeradication.org/: Ending polio and yellow fever in Nigeria, and why the polio vaccine must be delivered multiple times.
  • Our brand new animation on the two polio vaccines has been released, available in English, French, and Arabic.
  • In response to recent cases, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has announced the circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak ongoing in the country as a Public Health Emergency of National Concern. Since the outbreak began, the Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, has implemented four monovalent oral polio vaccine 2 (mOPV2) supplementary immunization campaigns and one mop-up campaign to prevent virus spread. They have worked hard to strengthen surveillance and routine immunization in the outbreak zones and across the country, and are fully committed to ending the outbreak. The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in the DRC in 2017 is 21. No cases of cVDPV2 with onset in 2018 have so far been reported.
  • Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: No new viruses reported.

NA:

  • onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2017.
  • figures exclude non-AFP sources.
  • all cVDPV are type2.  cVDPV definition: see document “Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses” at [pdf]

Weekly country updates as of 21 February 2018

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Afghanistan in 2018 remains three.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Spinboldak district, Kandahar province, with onset on 6 January 2018.
  • The most recent supplementary immunization days concluded last week, during which vaccinators aimed to vaccinate just under 6 million children across 24 provinces. Post-campaign monitoring has begun to collect information on the number of children reached.
  • The next campaign is scheduled for mid-March, using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV).
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of officially reported WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2017 remains eight. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Zhob district, Balochistan province, with onset on 15 November 2017.
  • The most recent supplementary immunization days concluded last week, during which vaccinators aimed to vaccinate just over 36 million children across the country. Post-campaign monitoring has begun to collect information on the number of children reached.
  • The next campaign is scheduled for mid-March, using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV).
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.
  • The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is four and no cases have been reported in 2017 or 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Monguno Local Government Area, Borno, with onset on 21 August 2016.
  • Nigeria continues to implement an emergency response to the detected WPV1 strain and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) strains affecting the country (last detected in 2016).
  • The next immunization days are planned for early March.
  • As part of the emergency response, subnational surveillance continues to be strengthened.
  • The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) (Borno state, Nigeria in 2016) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) (Borno and Sokoto states in 2016) continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
  • Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps across the region.
  • These activities include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons camps, and at international borders.
  • The next set of supplementary immunization days are planned for 2nd March, and will be synchronized across the whole Lake Chad basin.
  • Read the latest polio update from the Lake Chad basin to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in the DRC in 2017 remains 21. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Ankoro district, Tanganyika province, with onset on 3 December 2017.
  • In response to the recent cases, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has announced the cVDPV2 outbreak ongoing in the country a Public Health Emergency of National Concern.
  • The Ministry of Health, supported by WHO and partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, remains fully committed to outbreak response, including use of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2) across the country, in line with internationally-agreed outbreak response protocols.
  • Children living in the districts where the latest cases were reported were last targeted with mOPV2 during December vaccination days.
  • Surveillance and immunization activities continue to be strengthened in neighbouring countries.
  • Read the latest polio update from the DRC to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • Circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) is confirmed in Somalia.
  • Three vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2s (VDPV2s) were isolated from two environmental samples collected in Hamarweyn district, Banadir province (Mogadishu), one on 4 January, and one on 11 January 2018. These latest isolates are genetically linked to previously isolated VDPV2s from 2017, collected on 22 October and 2 November from environmental samples collected from Waberi district, Banadir province. In total, four environmental samples (with seven unique virus sequences) positive for cVDPV2 have been collected in Somalia between October 2017, and January 2018.
  • No cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) associated with this cVDPV2 have been detected at this time – the viruses were all isolated from environmental samples.
  • Surveillance for AFP cases in the area is being strengthened.
  • Since detection of the initial isolates in 2017, outbreak response campaigns in line with internationally-agreed guidelines have been implemented, consisting of two large-scale immunization activities (SIAs) in Banadir, Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle provinces. A third SIA is planned for March 2018, and further response based on evolving epidemiology and ongoing risk assessment is being evaluated.
  • WHO and its partners are continuing to support local public health authorities in conducting field investigations and risk assessments to more clearly assess any potential risk of circulation of the identified cVDPV2, and to continue to support the outbreak response and strengthening of disease surveillance.
  • Read our Somalia country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week.
  • The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74. There are no cases reported in 2018.
  • The most recent case (by date of onset) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • An inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) immunization round has successfully concluded in Damascus, Hasakah, parts of Aleppo governorates, and Jurmana district of rural Damascus, as part of the second phase of the outbreak response. IPV vaccination is continuing in accessible parts of Aleppo governorate.
  • Post campaign monitoring of the IPV campaign has concluded in Damascus, Hasakah and parts of Aleppo governorate. Overall, post campaign monitoring indicates 81% vaccination rates if measured by parental/caregiver recall and 77% if measured by finger marking.
  • A nationwide immunization round utilizing bivalent OPV (bOPV) is planned for March. The campaign will target all children aged less than 5 years.
  • Read the latest polio update from Syria to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.