This Week

Polio this week as of 18 September 2018

  • Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Afghanistan – one new case of wild poliovirus (WPV1). Democratic Republic of Congo – two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2).  See country sections below for more details.
  • Featured on www.polioeradication.org: Coffee with Polio Experts – Darcy Levison of WHO talks about the logistical challenges of reaching every child in the Lake Chad subregion.

NA: Onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2017. Figures exclude non-AFP sources.  In 2018, cVDPV includes all three serotypes 1, 2 and 3.

For Somalia: 1 cVDPV2 and cVDPV3 isolated from one AFP case.

cVDPV definition: see document “Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses” at [pdf].

Weekly country updates as of 18 September 2018

  • One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1), from Kandahar province, Kandahar district, with onset of paralysis on 11 August.  This brings the total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 to 14.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.  The total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 remains four.
  • No new positive environmental samples were reported in the past week.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases reported in Nigeria in 2018 is eight.
  • The most recent cases, from Miga Local Government Area (LGA), Jigawa state, and Baure LGA, Katsina state, had onset of paralysis on 27 July.
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported. The most recently-detected WPV1 case, from Borno state, had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016.
  • The country continues to be affected by two separate cVDPV2 outbreaks, the first centered in Jigawa state, and the second in Sokoto state.
  • In response to cVDPV2 detection, the country continues to conduct acute flaccid paralysis surveillance strengthening activities including enhanced active surveillance visits and community sampling. The programme has also carried out an extensive search for type 2 containing vaccines (tOPV/mOPV2) in the areas surrounding where the virus had been detected.
  • The GPEI is working with regional and country counterparts and partners to support and plan for mOPV2 SIA outbreak response in September and October sub-national immunization activity.
  • At the same time, outbreak response to WPV1 continues, including efforts to address surveillance and immunity gaps in parts of Borno state.
  • Read our Nigeria country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in Nigeria continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin.
  • Emergency outbreak response efforts continue across the Lake Chad basin, together with activities to fill subnational surveillance gaps in the region.
  • These include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons and refugee camps, and at international borders.
  • Preparations continue for a cross-border synchronized immunization activity in October.
  • Two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week, both from Mongola province; one in Yamaluka district with onset of paralysis on 30 July and one in Bumba district with onset of paralysis on 5 August.  Additionally, one cVDPV2 was also detected in a healthy community contact in Mongola province.
  • DR Congo is affected by three separate strains of cVDPV2, in the provinces of Mongola, Maniema and Haut Lomami/Tanganika/Haut Katanga/Ituri.
  • In response to recent geographic spread of one of the strains, including to Ituri province close to the border with Uganda, provincial governors on 26 July convened an urgent meeting and signed the ‘Kinshasa Declaration for Polio Eradication’. The high-level meeting was convened by HE the Minister of Health, as well as the WHO Director-General and the Regional Director for Africa. Provincial governors committed to providing the necessary oversight, accountability and resources needed to urgently improve the quality of the outbreak response being implemented across the country. Outbreak response since cVDPV was first confirmed in 2017 has been marred by operational challenges, as too many children continue to remain un- or under-vaccinated. This level of oversight can help ensure that operational deficits are rapidly identified and addressed.
  • The polio outbreak response is being conducted simultaneously to an ongoing Ebola outbreak affecting North Kivu province, in the east of the country (close to provinces affected by cVDPV2). As in the past, the polio teams are coordinating closely with the broader humanitarian emergency network, to ensure both outbreaks are addressed in a coordinated manner (as was the case during the recent Ebola outbreak in Equateur province, which was successfully stopped).
  • Partners of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative will continue to support authorities across the country, to ensure that this new level of commitment rapidly translates into operational improvements on the ground.
  • Read our Democratic Republic of the Congo country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • The Horn of Africa is currently affected by separate outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and type 3 (cVDPV3), reporting both cases and environmental positives.
  • No new cases were reported in the past.
  • Somalia has reported a total of seven cases in 2018: four cVDPV2, two cVDPV3 and one cVDPV2&3. Circulating VDPV2 was also detected in one environmental sample collected on 2 August in Waberi district, Banadir region.  Circulating VDPV2 has also been detected during 2018 in one environmental sample in Kenya.
  • Outbreak response to both virus types is currently being implemented in line with internationally-agreed guidelines. Large-scale supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) have been implemented in Banadir, Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle regions, Somalia, with additional SIAs planned or carried out in the affected zones of the Horn of Africa. Special surveillance activities are being undertaken to determine the origin of the viral circulation.
  • WHO and partners continue to support local public health authorities across the Horn of Africa in conducting field investigations and risk assessments.
  • Read our Somalia country page and Kenya country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported this week.  The total number of cases in the country in 2018 remains 12 (four from Eastern Highlands, two from Enga, two from Madang and one from National capital district and three from Morobe provinces).
  • Papua New Guinea officially launched its outbreak response campaign on 16 July in Morobe, Madang and Eastern Highlands provinces. Round 2 of the outbreak response commenced 20 August in Madang, Morobe, and Eastern Highlands provinces while vaccination activities in Chimbu, Enga, Hela, Jiwaka, Southern Highlands, and Western Highlands provinces began on 27 August. Nationwide campaigns are planned for October/November.
  • The geographic extent of the outbreak response is currently being reviewed and will be expanded as necessary.
  • Intensified surveillance measures to improve detection of acute flaccid paralysis and poliovirus are being implemented across the country, with on-the-ground training for provincial and district staff being provided by NDOH and WHO.
  • Read our Papua New Guinea country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in Syria. The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74. There are no cases reported in 2018. The most recent case (by date of onset of paralysis) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • Read the latest polio update from Syria to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.