This Week

Polio this week as of 17 April 2019

  • Co-chairs of Immunization Management Group (IMG) announced that the global goal set out in 2013 of 126-OPV using countries to introduce 1 dose of IPV in their immunization programme has been achieved.
  • Eminent Islamic religious scholars from Afghanistan and Pakistan came together in Muscat, Oman for the first ever joint Ulama Conference, under the aegis of the Islamic Advisory Group (IAG). for polio eradication The IAG convened religious scholars in a bid to appreciate their value as community leaders and secure bilateral support for polio eradication efforts across the joint poliovirus transmission corridors. At the end of the two-day conference, the scholars issued a joint declaration in support of the polio efforts. Watch the Opening Session here. Read the declaration here.
  • In keeping with the recommendations of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR), Afghanistan and Pakistan have introduced an all-age polio vaccination for travelers crossing international borders to increase general population immunity the common wild poliovirus transmission corridor. Read more.
  • Summary of new viruses this week: Afghanistan—three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1)-positive environmental samples; Pakistan—three WPV1-positive environmental samples; Nigeria—one circulating vaccine-derived type 2 (cVDPV2) case and seven cVDPV2-positive environmental samples. See country sections below for more details.

NA: Onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2017. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. In 2018, cVDPV includes all three serotypes 1, 2 and 3.
For Somalia: 1 cVDPV2 and cVDPV3 isolated from one AFP case.
cVDPV definition: see document “Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses” at [pdf].

Weekly country updates as of 17 April 2019

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. There are three WPV1 cases reported in 2019 from Afghanistan. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2018 remains 21.
  • Three WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week: two from Jalalabad in Nangarhar province and one from Lashkargah in Hilmand province. The samples were collected between 23 February-23 March 2019.
  • The Technical Advisory Group for polio eradication (TAG) met on 15-16 January 2019 to assess the progress made towards polio eradication in Afghanistan in 2018 and made recommendations for the way forward in 2019.
  • Read the latest polio update from Afghanistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week. There are six WPV1 cases reported in 2019.  The total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 remains 12.
  • Three WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week: one from Quetta in Balochistan province; one from South Waziristan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Tribal Districts, and one from Kambar in Sindh province. The samples were collected between 7-21 March 2019. So far in 2019, a total of 78 environmental positive samples have been reported. Full year 2018 total remains 140.
  • Read the latest polio update from Pakistan to see information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 has been reported in the past week in Imeko Afon LGA, Ogun State. The onset of paralysis was on 9 March 2019. There are five cVDPV2 cases reported in 2019 so far. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 remains 34.
  • Seven cVDPV2-positive environmental samples have been reported this week: two in Madaiguri, Borno state; one in Tarauni, Kano state; three in Lagos mainland and one in Mushin in Lagos. The samples were collected between 14 December 2018 to 19 March 2019.
  • No cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in the country since the one detected from Borno State with a date of onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016.
  • The country continues to be affected by two separate cVDPV2 outbreaks, the first centered in Jigawa State with subsequent spread to other states as well as to neighbouring Republic of Niger, and the second in Sokoto State.
  • Recent confirmation of spread of one of the cVDPV2 outbreaks, both within Nigeria and internationally, underscores the urgent need to fill remaining vaccination gaps in the ongoing outbreak response, and to optimize the geographic extent and operational quality of mOPV2 response.
  • At the same time, outbreak response to WPV1 continues, including efforts to address surveillance and immunity gaps in parts of Borno State.
  • Read our Nigeria country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been reported in the past week. The most recent cVDPV2 isolated in the country was in Magaria district, Zinder province with an onset of paralysis on 5 December 2018.
  • The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 reported in Niger in 2018 is ten.  The outbreak is genetically-linked to the cVDPV2 outbreak originating in Jigawa, Nigeria. Virus was isolated from children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) from Zinder region, located in the south of Niger and on the border with Nigeria, with dates of onset of paralysis ranging from 18 July through 5 December 2018.
  • Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and routine immunization across the country with focus on the infected provinces and the provinces at the international borders with Nigeria are being reinforced.
  • Active case finding for additional AFP cases is continuing, and additional surveillance measures such as increasing the frequency and extent of environmental surveillance and community sampling of healthy individuals is being expanded.
  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported this week in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The total number of cVDPV2 cases reported in 2018 is 20.
  • The most recent cVDPV2 case was reported from Mufunga-Sampwe district in Haut-Katanga province with onset of paralysis on 7 October 2018.
  • DRC is affected by four separate cVDPV2 outbreaks, in the provinces of Haut Katanga; Mongala, Maniema and Haut Lomami/Tanganika/Haut Katanga/Ituri.
  • Read our Democratic Republic of the Congo country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’
  • No circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week.
  • The Horn of Africa is currently affected by separate outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and type 3 (cVDPV3), reporting both AFP cases and environmental positive samples.
  • Somalia has reported a total of 12 cVDPV cases (five type 2, six type 3 and one, coinfection of both type 2 and type 3) in 2018.
  • The most recent cVDPV2 virus was isolated from an environmental sample collected on 11 October 2018 from Waberi district in Banadir province.  The most recent cVDPV3 virus was isolated from an environmental sample also from Waberi district, Banadir province collected on 23 August 2018.
  • Circulating VDPV2 has also been detected during 2018 in one environmental sample in Kenya collected on 21 March 2018.
  • Outbreak response to both virus types is currently being implemented in line with internationally-agreed guidelines. Large-scale supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) have been implemented in Banadir, Lower Shabelle and Middle Shabelle regions, Somalia.
  • WHO and partners continue to support local public health authorities across the Horn of Africa in conducting field investigations and risk assessments.
  • Read our Somalia country page and Kenya country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’
  • The Papua New Guinea Polio Outbreak Response Report 2018 is online. The report summarizes the accomplishments of the Government of Papua New Guinea, with support from the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Rotary, the Government of Australia and New Zealand and other partners and donors in responding to the polio outbreak.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported this week.  The total number of cases in 2018 remains 26.
  • The most recent cVDPV1 virus was isolated from an environmental sample collected in the National Capital district on 6 November 2018.
  • Emergency Operation Centres are established and operational at the national level and in all affected provinces; environmental surveillance is functional in five sites in two major cities.
  • Three Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) of expanding scope have taken place since late July, from three provinces to nine, to nationwide. The most recent was aimed at children under the age of 15, due to large numbers of poorly-immunized older children.
  • Planning is underway for the next steps of the outbreak response, focusing on both vaccination and surveillance for polioviruses.
  • Read our Papua New Guinea country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak has been reported this week.  The total number of cases in 2018 remains 1.
  • In addition to the confirmed case, the same virus was also isolated from two healthy community contacts, reported on 10 and 17 December 2018.
  • The GPEI and partners are working with country counterparts to support the local public health authorities in conducting a field investigation (clinical, epidemiological and immunological) and thorough risk assessment to discuss planning and implementation of immunization and outbreak response.
  • In January 2017, a single VDPV2 virus had been isolated from a 5-year old boy with AFP, also from Zambézia province (Mopeia district).  Outbreak response was conducted in the first half of 2017 with monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 (mOPV2).
  • Read our Mozambique country page to see information on cases, surveillance and response to the developing outbreak.
  • No circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) cases were reported this week.
  • In total, three genetically-linked circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) isolates were detected from Papua province: a cVDPV1 from an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) case, with onset of paralysis on 27 November 2018, and two cVDPV1 isolates from healthy community contacts, collected on 24 January and 13 February 2019.  This outbreak is not linked to the cVDPV1 currently affecting neighbouring Papua New Guinea.
  • The GPEI and partners are working with country counterparts to support the local public health authorities in conducting a field investigation (clinical, epidemiological and immunological) and thorough risk assessment to discuss planning and implementation of immunization and outbreak response.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.