This Week

Polio this week as of 16 October 2018

  • World Polio Day is coming up on 24 October: join partners around the world in making this year’s World Polio Day a success.
  • Summary of newly-reported viruses this week: Afghanistan – one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case and five WPV1-positive environmental samples; Pakistan – two WPV1-positive environmental samples; Niger – three circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases; Somalia – one cVDPV type 3 case; and, Papua New Guinea – three cVDPV type 1 cases.  See country-specific sections below for further details.

NA: Onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2017. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. In 2018, cVDPV includes all three serotypes 1, 2 and 3.

For Somalia: 1 cVDPV2 and cVDPV3 isolated from one AFP case.

cVDPV definition: see document “Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses” at [pdf].

Weekly country updates as of 16 October 2018

  • One wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, with onset of paralysis on 1 September from Hilmand province.  The total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 is 16.
  • Five WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week, from Kandahar, Kunar and Khost, all collected on 25 September.
  • The latest polio update from Afghanistan has information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported in the past week.  The total number of WPV1 cases in 2018 is four.
  • Two WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week, from Sindh (greater Karachi) and Balochistan (Quetta), collected on 10 and 20 September, respectively.
  • The latest polio update from Pakistan has information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week.  The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 is 16.
  • No cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) were reported. The most recently-detected WPV1 case, from Borno state, had onset of paralysis on 21 August 2016.
  • In response to cVDPV2 detection, the country continues to conduct acute flaccid paralysis surveillance strengthening activities including enhanced active surveillance visits and community sampling. The programme has also carried out an extensive search for type 2 containing vaccines (tOPV/mOPV2) in the areas surrounding where the virus is detected.
  • At the same time, outbreak response to WPV1 continues, including efforts to address surveillance and immunity gaps in parts of Borno state.
  • Read our Nigeria country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Three cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) are reported from Niger, genetically linked to a cVDPV2 in Katsina, Nigeria, with onset of paralysis on 31 August, 6 September and 7 September, all from Zinder province.  The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2018 is six, all from Zinder province.  These cases are all linked to the cVDPV2 outbreak in Jigawa, Nigeria.
  • The Government of Niger has declared a national public health emergency, as per the temporary recommendations of the Emergency Committee of the International Health Regulations.
  • WHO and its partners are supporting local public health authorities in field investigations and risk assessment, and to conduct additional response measures as appropriate and necessary.  Health workers are conducting active searches for additional AFP cases; surveillance is also being strengthened by taking more environmental samples from more areas and sampling the stools of healthy people.
  • The detection of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) and cVDPV2 in Nigeria continue to pose a risk to the neighbouring countries of the Lake Chad basin. Emergency outbreak response and efforts to improve surveillance continue across the basin. These include efforts to vaccinate children at markets, in internally displaced persons and refugee camps, and at international borders.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week.
  • DR Congo is affected by three separate strains of cVDPV2, in the provinces of Mongola, Maniema and Haut Lomami/Tanganika/Haut Katanga/Ituri.
  • The relevant Provincial governors have signed a ‘Kinshasa Declaration for Polio Eradication’, committing to providing the necessary oversight, accountability and resources needed to stop the outbreak. It is hoped that level of oversight will improve operational performance of the outbreak response.
  • The polio outbreak response is being conducted simultaneously with an ongoing Ebola outbreak affecting North Kivu province, in the east of the country (close to provinces affected by cVDPV2). As in the past, the polio teams are coordinating closely with the broader humanitarian emergency network, to ensure both outbreaks are addressed in a coordinated manner.
  • Our Democratic Republic of the Congo country page has information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • The Horn of Africa is currently affected by separate outbreaks of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and type 3 (cVDPV3), reporting both cases and environmental positives.
  • One new case of cVDPV3 was reported in the past week, from Middle Shabelle, Somalia, with onset of paralysis on 7 September.
  • The country is carrying out outbreak response to both virus types in line with internationally-agreed guidelines. An Outbreak Response Assessment is due to start on 18 November, followed by a Technical Advisory Group meeting.
  • Read our Somalia country page and Kenya country page to see information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • Learn more about vaccine-derived polioviruses through this short animation or this ‘Coffee with Polio Experts’ video.
  • Three new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week, from Enga, Eastern Highlands and Madang, with onset of paralysis on 6 August, 29 August and 6 September, respectively.  This brings the total number of cases in 2018 to 18. Two cVDPV1-positive environmental samples were reported in the past week, from Port Moresby, both collected on 5 September.
  • Emergency Operations Centres are established and operational in all affected provinces; environmental surveillance is functional in five sites in two major cities.
  • Three Supplemental Immunization Activities (SIAs) of expanding scope have taken place since late July, from three provinces to nine, to nation-wide. The most recent was aimed at children under the age of 15, due to the large numbers of poorly-immunized older children.
  • Detection and reporting of new viruses or cases at this point in the outbreak response is not unusual or unexpected, as surveillance is being strengthened, and most reported and confirmed cases had onset of paralysis prior to the start of comprehensive outbreak response.
  • The Papua New Guinea country page has information on surveillance and vaccination campaigns.
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week in Syria. The total number of officially reported cVDPV2 cases in Syria in 2017 remains 74. There are no cases reported in 2018. The most recent case (by date of onset of paralysis) was reported in Boukamal district, with onset on 21 September 2017.
  • The latest polio update from Syria has information on cases, surveillance and vaccination campaigns.