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Polio this week as of 23 July 2014

  • Polio vaccination campaigns reaching more than 25 million children multiple times in the Middle East since October have helped slow the outbreak: new report from UNICEF and WHO emphasises that the second phase of outbreak response focuses on reaching those children who continue to be missed.
  • In the Horn of Africa, further efforts are on to intensify the outbreak response, following confirmation of new cases from Somalia last week. These cases underscore the risk that ongoing low-level poliovirus transmission continues to pose to children across the region, and of the urgent need to fully stop the outbreak rapidly completely.
  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

128

140

416

- in endemic countries

112

59

160

- in non-endemic countries

16

81

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 99     99 21  
21 93 28-Jun-14
Nigeria 5     5 35
  35 53 27-May-14
Afghanistan 8     8 3     3 14 17-Jun-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 3-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 3     3       0 4 31-Jan-14
Syria 1     1       0 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1
    0 9 05-Jan-14
Somalia 4     4 72
  72 194 06-Jun-14
Kenya
    0 9     9 14 14-Jul-13
Total 128 0 0 128 140 0   140 416
Total in endemic countries      112 0 0 112 59 0
59 160   
 Total outbreak 16    0   0 16 81 0 0 81 256  

Data in WHO as of 23 July 2013 for 2013 data and 22 July 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan


  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains eight. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 17 June, from Khost province (linked to virus in North Waziristan, Pakistan).
  • Khost province borders Pakistan, where communities displaced by military action have been leaving North Waziristan, Pakistan. Health authorities in surrounding districts of Pakistan and across the border in Afghanistan have been vaccinating displaced children: more than 35,000 displaced children under the age of 10 are reported to have received a dose of bivalent oral polio vaccine (bivalent OPV) as they entered the Afghan provinces of Paktyka and Khost.
  • The next nationwide supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) are scheduled for August.

Nigeria

    • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 27 May in Kano state; Nigeria’s total case count for 2014 is five.
    • One new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) case was reported in the past week, with onset of paralysis on 13 June from Borno. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 is now 14. It is the most recent cVDPV2 case in the country.
    • Mop-up vaccination activities took place in parts of four northern Nigerian states from 12-15 July. Larger subnational activities are planned for the country’s north during 9-12 August (trivalent OPV) and 20-23 September (bivalent OPV).

    Pakistan

    • Five new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week, three from Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA – two from North Waziristan and one from South Waziristan), one from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) and one from Gadap, greater Karachi, Sindh. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases in the country to 99 for 2014. The case from South Waziristan is the most recent in the country, with onset of paralysis on 28 June.
    • No new cVDPV2 cases were reported in the past week. The country has reported 16 cases of cVDPV2 to date in 2014 and the most recent case had onset of paralysis on 27 May in FR Bannu, FATA.
    • In order to protect those displaced by the military action in North Waziristan, people of all ages continue to be vaccinated against polio at transit points within the country (over 394,000 vaccinated to date) and during several rounds of house-to-house immunization campaigns in the host communities (over 500,000 vaccinated in the first two rounds, with a third round just concluded).

    Central Africa

    • No new cases were reported in central Africa this week. Equatorial Guinea has reported five WPV1 cases in 2014 and Cameroon has reported three WPV1 cases. The most recent case for the entire sub-region had onset of paralysis on 3 May, in Mbini district, Litoral province, Equatorial Guinea. Cameroon’s most recently reported case occurred more than five months ago, with onset of paralysis on 31 January.
    • In its 2-3 July meeting, the Central African Technical Advisory Group noted that there is now a ‘momentous opportunity’ for Africa to be polio-free, given the decline in cases in Nigeria, and warned that there is a lack of urgency to capitalize on this opportunity. The group recommended systematic engagement with the Heads of State and a region-wide alert on the potential spread of polio to ensure countries reduce their vulnerability and are prepared to deal with importation of poliovirus.
    • The entire population of Equatorial Guinea, regardless of age, will be vaccinated in a campaign starting on 26 July. A house-to-house search for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases will be conducted during the campaign; a similar search is currently taking place in Gabon. Cameroon, the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo), Gabon and the Republic of Congo also have mass vaccination campaigns planned for July.

    Horn of Africa

    • No new WPV1 cases were reported in the past week. Five cases have been reported in the Horn of Africa to date in 2014: one WPV1 in Ethiopia (14 January) and four WPV1s in Somalia (the most recent on 3 June in Mudug, Puntland.
    • The most recent SIAs took place in accessible districts of Somalia on 15-18 June, except for Puntland (which includes Mudug), which followed on 21-24 June. A Short Interval Additional Dose (SIAD) campaign took place on 5-9 July, and this activity is followed by a further campaign this week (20-25 July).
    • Outbreak response campaigns in other areas across the Horn of Africa is continuing.
      

    Israel and West Bank and Gaza

    • WPV1 has no longer been detected in in environmental samples in Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip in recent months; the most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Samples collected in April and May have been negative. Fourteen positive samples have been collected from January to March 2014 in Israel, following 136 positive samples in 2013.

    Middle East

    • No new cases were reported in the past week. There have been three cases of WPV1 reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria. The most recent case reported from Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April. Syria’s most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014.
    • In the Middle East, the second phase of the comprehensive outbreak response is being implemented across the region. Iraq, Jordan and Syria are all planning to hold vaccination activities in August.
    • WHO and UNICEF are committed to working with all organizations and agencies providing humanitarian assistance to Syrians affected by the conflict. This includes vaccination of all children no matter where they are, whether in government or contested areas of the country, or outside Syria. 

    West Africa

    • No cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent case in the region was due to WPV1 and occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012. In addition, a single case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July, 2013.
    • Multi-country, synchronized immunization campaigns continue to be implemented across the region with activities planned in 15 countries in September (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Sierra Leone and Togo).