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Polio this week as of 26 August 2015
 

       
         
  • The Expert Review Committee met in Nigeria last week to review the progress made in Nigeria, identify ways to strengthen the gains of the last few years and identify the major risks to stopping polio across the country. More 

 

  • A project to improve access to hard-to-reach (HTR) populations in Nigeria with polio vaccines is having a dramatic impact on the broader health needs of remote communities, demonstrating the legacy of polio eradication in action. More 

 

  • Through a series of photographs, meet religious leaders, health care workers, volunteers, vaccinators, programme monitors and parents as they play their unique roles in protecting children across Afghanistan from polio.


  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

37

10

148

32

359

55

- in endemic countries

37

1

131

32

340

 52

- in non-endemic countries

0

9

17

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 29 0 117 16 306 22 30-Jun-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 8 8 28 01-Aug-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 1 6 16 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-May-15 
Somalia 0 4  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 4  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 2  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 5  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 1 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 1 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0 0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar 9  0 N/A  07-Jul-15 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type one (WPV1) case was confirmed this week in Achin district of Nangarhar. This most recent case, which was the second WPV1 case in the district this year, had onset of paralysis on 1 August. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now eight.
  • Intensive and strengthened supplementary immunization activities are planned in the coming months. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will take place across the south and east of the country on 20 - 22 September using bivalent OPV and National Immunization Days (NIDs) will take place on 18 - 20 October using trivalent OPV.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains six.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kwali Local Government Area (LGA), Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, with onset of paralysis on 16 May; this is the only cVDPV2 case reported in Nigeria in 2015. 
  • The Expert Review Committee met in Nigeria last week to review the progress made in Nigeria, identify ways to strengthen the gains of the last few years and identify the major risks to stopping polio across the country. More 
  • In line with the National Emergency Action Plan for polio eradication, aggressive and rapid vaccination activities are conducted in response to any detected virus. Three case response 'mopping-up campaigns' using trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) have taken place in the FCT and Kaduna and Kogi states, as well as in adjacent LGAs of Niger and Nasarawa states, to stop transmission of the persistent strain of cVDPV2. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in the north of Nigeria on 5 September and 17 October using trivalent OPV.

Pakistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were confirmed this week. The most recent case, reported in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, had onset of paralysis on 30 June. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 remains 29, compared to 117 at this time last year.  
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week, and no cases have been reported in 2015. The number of cVDPV2 cases reported in 2014 remains 22.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December 2014. 
  • Three new environmental samples positive for WPV1 were reported this week, one in Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, one in Gadap town of Karachi, Sindh province, and one in Quetta district of Balochistan province. These samples were collected on 11 August, 10 August and 28 June respectively. No new samples positive for VDPV2 were reported this week. The most recent one was reported in Gulshan-e-Iqbal town of Karachi city, Sindh province, collected on 7 July.
  • Environmental surveillance allows detection of continuing circulation of polioviruses, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without confirmed polio cases.  Environmental surveillance continues to be a very helpful supplemental surveillance tool enabling the programme to increase the overall sensitivity of surveillance for polioviruses.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. The most recent case in central Africa was in Cameroon, with onset of paralysis on 9 July.
  • In September, National Immunization Days (NIDs) will take place in Angola, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon. Subnational Immunization Days are planned the Central African Republic, Cameroon, Chad, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week and no cases have been reported in 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (with onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia. The most recent case of WPV1 in the Horn of Africa had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014 in the Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in Kenya on 29 August to 2 September and again later in September with dates to be confirmed. NIDs in Djibouti and SNIDs in Ethiopia and Somalia are also planned for September.

Madagascar

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Mahajanga 1 district of Mahajanga province with onset of paralysis on 7 July.  The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains nine. The total number of cVDPV1 cases reported in 2014 was one. 
  • The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case reported in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here.
  • The emergency outbreak response continues to be intensified. A second round of National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned for 14 – 18 September, covering an expanded age group of up to 15 years. Extended age group NIDs are also planned for 12 – 16 October. Both upcoming NIDs will use bivalent oral polio vaccine.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April 2014.
  • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in West Africa (excluding Nigeria, one of the three remaining polio-endemic countries) occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in September in Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mauritania, Niger and Sierra Leone, and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Cote d’Ivoire and Mali.