print this page
  
Polio this week as of  29 June 2016

           
  • The Expert Review Committee on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization met in Abuja on 21 – 22 June, and emphasised that the strategy in Nigeria must now shift from interrupting transmission to staying polio free, sustaining the hard-won gains, strengthening routine immunization and responding to outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. More 

 

  • The Pakistan Technical Advisory Group met this week in Islamabad to discuss progress towards interrupting the transmission of polio and to discuss solutions to the upcoming challenges.

 

  • Surveillance is an essential part of polio eradication efforts in countries around the world. Michel Zaffran, Director of GPEI, explains these crucial efforts to Rotary in this blog post.

 

  

Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases



Total cases

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

17

3

29

8

74

32

- in endemic countries

17

0

29

3

74

 3

- in non-endemic countries

0

3

0

5

0

 29

 

 

Case breakdown by country



Countries

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

Onset of paralysis of  most  recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Afghanistan 6 0 4 0 20 0 29-May-16 NA
Pakistan  11 0 25 2 54 2 26-Apr-16 09-Feb-15
Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 7 NA 14-Dect-15
Lao PDR  0 3 0 0 0 8 NA 11-Jan-16
Madagascar 0 0 0 5 0 10 NA 22-Aug-15
Myanmar 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 05-Oct-15
Nigeria 0 0 0 1 0 1 NA 16-May-15
Ukraine 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 07-Jul-15



NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2015. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. Madagascar, Ukraine and Lao PDR cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. cVDPV definition: see document "Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses" at http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Resources/VDPV_ReportingClassification.pdf. Implementation as of 15 August 2015.



Afghanistan

               
  • No new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Shigal Wa Sheltan district of Kunar on 29 May.  The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 remains six compared to four at this time last year.
  • No WPV1 environmental positive samples have been reported in 2016. The most recent environmental positive samples were collected on 27 December 2015 - one in Jalalabad in Nangarhar province and the second in the city of Kabul.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned for 18 – 22 July using bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV). The next National Immunization Days (NIDs) will take place on 15 – 19 August.

Pakistan

                               
  • One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was reported in the past week in Dera Ismail Khan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with onset of paralysis on 6 June. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is now 12, compared to 25 at this time in 2015. 
  • No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were reported in the past week. The most recent positive sample was collected from Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab on 12 May.
  • Efforts continue to further strengthen immunization and surveillance activities in all provinces of the country.

Lao People's Democratic Republic

                             
  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case was reported in Fuang district of Vientiane province, with onset of paralysis on 11 January 2016. The total number of cVDPV1 cases remains three in 2016 and eight in 2015. 
  • Outbreaks of cVDPVs can arise in areas with low population immunity, emphasizing the importance of maintaining strong vaccination coverage. 
  • In Lao PDR the second outbreak response assessment (OBRA) concluded that the country is on track towards interrupting virus transmission. 
  • National Immunization Days using the bivalent oral polio vaccine are underway from 23 June – 1 July for children under 15 years of age.

Madagascar

           
  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) have been reported in 2016. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 22 August 2015 from Sud-Ouest region.  The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 10.  
  • The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset of paralysis in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here. 
  • The third Outbreak Response Assessment in Madagascar found that the surveillance system is not yet strong enough to conclude that polio transmission has been interrupted. Thirty-nine high-risk districts have been identified to receive focused attention.
  • National Immunization Days will take place in October using bivalent oral polio vaccine with dates to be confirmed.                           

    Myanmar

    • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) have been reported in 2016. The most recent case was isolated from a 16-month old child in Maungdaw, Rakhine, with onset of paralysis on 05 October 2015. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2015 remains two .

    Nigeria

         
    • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in 2016. No cases were reported in 2015.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
    • The Expert Review Committee on Polio Eradication and Routine Immunization met in Abuja on 21 – 22 June, and emphasised that the strategy in Nigeria must now shift from interrupting transmission to staying polio free, sustaining the hard-won gains, strengthening routine immunization and responding to outbreaks of vaccine-derived polioviruses. More
    • No new environmental samples of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported this week. The most recent positive sample was collected in Maiduguri district of Borno state on 23 March 2016. 
    • Genetic sequencing of that isolated strain indicates it is most closely linked genetically to a cVDPV2 strain from Borno in November 2013 and last detected in May 2014, indicating the strain has been circulating without detection for almost two years. Active case searching for actual cases of acute flaccid paralysis is being strengthened and the frequency of collection of environmental samples is being increased to ascertain the extent of circulation of this strain. 
    • The third campaign of the outbreak response is planned for 09 – 16 July. The Director General of the World Health Organization has authorized the release of the monovalent oral polio vaccine type 2 for the response from the global stock pile.


    West Africa

             
    • No circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases have been reported from Guinea in 2016. The most recent case was reported from Kankan district, with onset of paralysis on 14 December. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2015 remains seven. The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset in August 2014.
    • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in August in Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Niger in September with dates to be confirmed. In October, NIDs are planned in Benin, Guinea, Liberia, Mali and Sierra Leone, and SNIDs in Mauritania.