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Polio this week as of 29 October 2014
 

  • World Polio Week, which ran 23 to 29 October, provided an opportunity to recognize the progress made towards the global eradication of polio in 2014. This year is the first year with South East Asia certified as polio-free.
  • Jonas Salk, who developed the first polio vaccine in the 1950s, celebrated his 100th birthday on 28 October. Read more about the legacy of the polio vaccine here.
  • The Federation of Islamic Medical Associations launched a call to action this week to Muslim physicians across the world to join the urgent effort to protect all children from vaccine preventable diseases.
  • The Independent Monitoring Board has published its 10th report, following its meeting in early October. The report is available here.
  • At last week’s meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE), the group reviewed the readiness criteria for type 2 OPV withdrawal globally, and concluded that preparations for such a withdrawal in early 2016 are on track. They recommended that Member States accelerate preparations and facilitate international coordination. More.

  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

257

312

416

- in endemic countries

238

110

160

- in non-endemic countries

19

202

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 220     220 53  
53 93 01-Oct-14
Afghanistan 12     12 8     8 14 18-Sep-14
Nigeria 6     6 49
  49 53 24-Jul-14
Somalia 5     5 180
  180 194 11-Aug-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 5     5  1     1 4 09-Jul-14
Syria 1     1       0 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1 7     7 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 14     14 14 14-Jul-13
Total 257 0 0 257 312 0   312 416
Total in endemic countries      238 0 0 238 110 0
110 160   
 Total outbreak 19    0   0 19 202 0 0 202 256  

Data in WHO as of 29 October 2013 for 2013 data and 28 October 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week in Afghanistan. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 18 September in Panjwayi district, Kandahar province. The total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 remains 12.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. No cases of cVDPV have been reported in 2014.
  • Given the growing outbreak in neighbouring Pakistan, Afghanistan is taking protective steps to limit any spread of the virus. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are scheduled across the south of Afghanistan 16-18 November.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total case count for 2014 remains 6. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 remains 20. The most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis on 17 August in Kano.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will be held 1-4 November in northern Nigeria using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV). In some areas of Kano and Yobe states, supplementary immunization activities using inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) will also take place in November. 

Pakistan

  • Ten new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week in Pakistan. Of these, 4 are from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) (1 from North Waziristan, 1 from Frontier Region Bannu and 2 from Khyber Agency); 1 from Zhob district in Balochistan province, previously uninfected in 2014; 1 from Peshawar district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province; and 4 from Sindh province (1 from Khigadap, 2 from Khikorangi and 1 from Dadu, the latter 2 districts were previously uninfected in 2014). The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 1 October. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases in 2014 to 220 compared to 53 in 2013 by this date.
  • One new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) case was reported in the past week. This case had onset of paralysis in Khyber Agency, FATA, on 16th September. The case brings the 2014 cVDPV2 country total to 20 .
  • Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas, in particular the newly opened areas of FATA. At exit and entry points of areas that are inaccessible during polio campaigns, 163 permanent vaccination points are being used to reach internally displaced families as they move in and out of the inaccessible area.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported this week. In 2014, 10 cases have been reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea.
  • In Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are starting at the end of October, and in Gabon with dates to be confirmed. NIDs will also start on 7 November in Angola and Chad and 13 November in Congo. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will start in the Democratic Republic of Congo at the end of October. SNIDs will also be held in high risk areas of the Central African Republic in November and December.

Horn of Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week in the Horn of Africa. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of cases that have been reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 is six: 1 WPV1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 14 January) and 5 WPV1s in Somalia.
  • Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs) are being held in Somalia in October and in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda in November. Child Health Days (CHDs) including supplementary bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) immunization are planned in Yemen in November.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip in recent months. The most recent positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. Environmental samples collected since April have been negative.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Three cases of WPV1 have been reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria.
  • More than 6 months have passed with no cases of WPV1 in the Middle East. The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January, while the most recent case in Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April.
  • Phase 2 of the Middle East Outbreak response continues to be implemented to improve the quality of supplementary immunization activities and to increase the reach of campaigns. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are being held in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Turkey in October, using a mix of bivalent and trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) depending on the area. NIDs in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria and SNIDs in Turkey will also take place in November. 
     

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported this week. The last case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July 2013.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Mauritania, Senegal and Togo starting 31 October and in Guinea Bissau starting on 8 November. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) will also take place starting 31 October in Niger and Mali.