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Polio this week as of 25 March 2015
 

       
    • Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) was launched this week in Bangladesh, as part of global efforts to introduce the vaccine globally by end-2015, ahead of the planned switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV in early 2016. “Together with GPEI, Gavi is supporting an unprecedented push to introduce IPV into most countries by the end of 2015. Strong routine immunization is an essential factor to interrupt and maintain zero polio transmission,” commented Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. More.

 

    • The GPEI is currently accepting applications from students and recent graduates interested in summer 2015 internships at the World Health Organization. More information is available here


   

  


Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in 2014 

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

21

0

47

5

359

54 

- in endemic countries

21

 0

41 

5

340

 51

- in non-endemic countries

0

 0

6

 0

19

 3

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2015

Year-to-date 2014

Total in
 2014

Onset of paralysis of  most 
 recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Pakistan 20 0 36 4 306 21  24-Feb-15 13-Dec-14 
Afghanistan 1 4 28 21-Jan-15 N/A 
Nigeria 0 0 1 6 30  24-Jul-14 16-Nov-14 
Somalia 0 0  0 5 11-Aug-14 N/A 
Equatorial Guinea 0  0 1  0 5 0 03-May-14 N/A 
Iraq 0 1  0 2 0 07-Apr-14 N/A 
Cameroon 0 3  0 5 09-Jul-14 N/A 
Syrian Arab Republic 0 0 1 0 21-Jan-14 N/A 
Ethiopia 0 0 1 0 05-Jan-14 N/A 
South Sudan  0  0  0  0 N/A  12-Sep-14 
Madagascar  0  0 N/A  29-Sep-14 

 
Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV: Madagascar is cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2014. cVDPV is associated with ≥ 2 AFP cases or non-household contacts. VDPV2 cases with ≥ 6 (≥ 10 for type1) nucleotides difference from Sabin in VP1 are reported here.

Afghanistan

  • No new cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 21 January in Reg district of Hilmand province. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 remains 28, and 1 for 2015. Most of the cases from 2014 were linked to cross-border transmission with neighbouring Pakistan.
  • One new WPV1-positive environmental sample has been reported in the past week, collected on 24 January from Hilmand province, Southern Region.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6. No cases have been reported in 2015. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported this week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 16 November in Barde Local Governmental Area of Yobe state. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 30.

Pakistan

  • One new WPV1 case was reported in the past week, from Quetta, Balochistan, with onset of paralysis on 20 February. This brings the total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 to 20 (and 2014 remains 306). The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 February (from Khyber, Federally Administered Tribal Areas - FATA).
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 13 December. The number of cVDPV cases reported in 2014 remains 21.
  • Efforts are ongoing to strengthen implementation of the ‘low season’ emergency operations plan.
  • Strong, functional Emergency Operations Centres (EOCs) are now operational both at the federal and provincial levels.
  • Strategies are focusing on clearly identifying reasons for missed children, and putting in place area-specific mechanisms to overcome area-specific challenges.
  • Independent monitoring is strengthened and rolled out across wider geographic areas to provide a clearer assessment of quality and associated gaps.
  • Activities are focusing on known infected areas, but also areas deemed at high-risk but which have not reported polio cases. Environmental surveillance indicates widespread transmission of the virus, not just in known infected areas but also in areas without cases. Environmental surveillance is proving to be an instrumental supplemental surveillance tool enabling a clearer epidemiological picture. In the past week, six new WPV1-positive environmental samples were reported, collected in February from various sites in Sindh and FATA. 

 

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the last week. In 2014, 10 cases were reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea. Over 8 months have passed since the last WPV1 case had onset of paralysis in central Africa (in Cameroon, onset of paralysis on 9 July).
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are being held in Chad, and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Cameroon in March. In April, NIDs are scheduled in Equatorial Guinea and Chad, staggered NIDs in Central African Republic, and a SNID in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.  

Horn of Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August 2014, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of WPV1 cases that were reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 was 6: 1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 in Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in the last week. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September. In 2014, 2 cases were reported in South Sudan.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are currently ongoing in South Sudan (24 – 27 March). Supplementary Immunization Activities are planned in Somalia (30 March to 2 April) and NIDs in Yemen (starting 6 April). Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are also planned in Ethiopia and Somalia in March and in Kenya, Sudan and Ethiopia in April.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 11 months. The most recent WPV positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March 2014. All environmental samples collected since April have been negative for WPV.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the last week. Three cases of WPV1 were reported in the Middle East in 2014 - 2 in Iraq and 1 in Syria.
  • The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January 2014, while the most recent case in Iraq had onset of paralysis in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, on 7 April.
  • Phase III of the Middle East outbreak response is continuing to further strengthen vaccination services for vulnerable populations and to strengthen surveillance for polioviruses across the region.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa help to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio to create a buffer zone surrounding the affected countries. The Ebola crisis in western Africa continues to have an impact on the implementation of polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Twenty two surveillance medical officers from the National Polio Surveillance Programme (NPSP) in India have been deployed for 3 months to strengthen surveillance systems and data collection for the Ebola response, demonstrating the polio legacy in action. Read more.
  • On 10 – 13 April, National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger and Senegal. NIDs are planned for the three Ebola-affected countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone in April, May and June (depending on the country).