print this page
  

Polio this week as of 10 February 2016


  • As we enter February 2016, GPEI bids farewell to Hamid Jafari, the former director of GPEI, whose tenure has seen the removal of Nigeria from the list of polio-endemic countries, certification of the eradication of wild poliovirus type 2, and the lowest number of cases reported in the fewest number of places in any one year. GPEI welcomes Michel Zaffran, former coordinator of the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), as its new director, as we enter a pivotal part of the Endgame Plan.

  • Iraq has introduced the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization system. Read more here.

  • Environmental surveillance is playing an increasingly important role in ensuring that the poliovirus is found, wherever it continues to circulate. Find out more about environmental surveillance through this series of photographs.

  • There are nine weeks to go until the globally synchronized switch from the trivalent to bivalent oral polio vaccine, an important milestone in achieving a polio-free world. Read more here.

 


 

  

Wild poliovirus type 1 and Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

 WPV

 cVDPV

Globally

1

2

7

0

74

28

- in endemic countries

1

0

7

0

74

 3

- in non-endemic countries

0

2

0

0

0

 25

 

 

Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2016

Year-to-date 2015

Total in 2015

Onset of paralysis of  most  recent case

WPV

cVDPV 

WPV 

cVDPV

 WPV

cVDPV 

 WPV

 cVDPV

Afghanistan 0 0 0 0 20 0 20-Dec-15 NA
Pakistan  1 0 7 0 54 2 17-Jan-16 09-Feb-15
Guinea 0 0 0 0 0 4 NA 02-Oct-15
Lao PDR  0 2 0 0 0 7 NA 11-Jan-16
Madagascar 0 0 0 0 0 10 NA 22-Aug-15
Myanmar 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 05-Oct-15
Nigeria 0 0 0 0 0 1 NA 16-May-15
Ukraine 0 0 0 0 0 2 NA 07-Jul-15


NA: onset of paralysis in most recent case is prior to 2015. Figures exclude non-AFP sources. Madagascar, Ukraine and Lao PDR cVDPV1, all others cVDPV2. cVDPV definition: see document "Reporting and classification of vaccine-derived polioviruses" at http://www.polioeradication.org/Portals/0/Document/Resources/VDPV_ReportingClassification.pdf. Implementation as of 15 August 2015.


Afghanistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week, with onset of paralysis in Shahwalikot, Kandahar, on 20 December 2015. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2015 is now 20, compared to 28 reported in the country in 2014. 
  • No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were reported in the past week. The most recent environmental positive samples were collected on 27 December 2015 - one in Jalalabad in Nangarhar province and the second in Kabul city.
  • Sub-National Immunization Days SNIDs are planned from 16 to 19 February, using bOPV. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 15 to 18 March, prior to the switch. Read more about the switch here.


Pakistan

  • The first case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in 2016 was reported in the past week, with onset of paralysis in Karachi Gadap, Sindh on 17 January 2016. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2016 is now 1, compared to 7 reported for 2015 at this point last year.
  • No new WPV1 environmental positive samples were detected in the past week. The most recent environmental positive sample was detected in Karachi, Gulshan-e-Iqbal with collection on 18 January. 
  • Sub-National Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in February using tOPV. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in March using tOPV.

Lao People's Democratic Republic

  • Two new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week, in Phonhong and Fueng, Vientiane, with onset of paralysis on 8 January and 11 January 2016 respectively. The total number of cVDPV1 cases in 2016 is 2. 
  • Outbreaks of cVDPVs can arise in areas with low population immunity, emphasizing the importance of maintaining strong vaccination coverage. Learn more about VDPVs
  • An emergency outbreak response is continuing in the country, with particular focus on three high-risk provinces.  
  • Efforts continue to further strengthen surveillance activities in all provinces of the country, to assure that no cVPDV1 transmission is missed anywhere.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 15 to 28 February using tOPV. The campaign will target an expanded age group of children up to the age of 15 years.

Madagascar

  • No new cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 22 August from Sud-Ouest province.  The total number of cVDPV1 cases for 2015 remains 10.  
  • The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset of paralysis in September 2014, indicating prolonged and widespread circulation of the virus. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • The focus of the outbreak response is on strengthening subnational surveillance, and filling vaccination coverage gaps. 
  • The emergency outbreak response continues to be intensified. National Immunization Days (NIDs) in March and April will reach children using the trivalent oral polio vaccine.

Myanmar

  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) have been reported in Myanmar. The most recent reported case was isolated from a 16-month old child in Rakhine, with onset of paralysis on 05 October. The total number of cVDPV2 cases in 2015 remains 2.
  • The case is genetically linked to a VDPV isolated in the same village in April, which has now been reclassified as a cVDPV type 2. The genetic changes in the isolate suggest the cVDPV2 has been circulating for more than a year. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • The Ministry of Health of Myanmar is being supported by WHO and partners of the GPEI in planning and implementing an urgent response to the newly detected outbreaks. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned from 20 to 22 February using trivalent oral polio vaccine. 
  • Significant immunization gaps remain in Myanmar, with an estimated 24% of children un- or under-immunized. Vaccination coverage remains particularly low among special at-risk populations. AFP surveillance quality indicators are acceptable at the national level, but subnational gaps persist.
  • While WHO assesses the risk of international spread from Myanmar to be low, surveillance and immunization activities are being strengthened in neighbouring countries.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. No cases have been reported in 2015. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 is six.  The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July 2014 in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • No new cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis in Kwali Local Government Area (LGA), Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, with onset of paralysis on 16 May; this is the only cVDPV2 case reported in Nigeria in 2015. 
  • Vigilance must be maintained to ensure that all children are reached with polio vaccines and that surveillance systems remains alert to polioviruses.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in February and March, both using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV).

Ukraine

  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 7 July in the Zakarpatskaya oblast, in south-western Ukraine, bordering Romania, Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. The number of cVDPV1 cases reported in 2015 remains 2.
  • An assessment of the outbreak response in Ukraine, while acknowledging the efforts of Ministry of Health staff and partners, has concluded that major and rapid improvements are required in campaign quality and surveillance to ensure the outbreak is closed within 6 months.  
  • Ukraine had been at particular risk of emergence of a cVDPV, due to very low vaccination coverage. Learn more about vaccine derived polioviruses here
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) were carried out 25 to 29 January using tOPV. Sub-National Immunization Days (SNIDs) using tOPV will be carried out in March. More.

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week. The most recent WPV1 case in West Africa (excluding Nigeria) occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.  
  • No new circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) cases were reported in Guinea in the past week. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2015 remains 4. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 2 October in Siguiri district, Kankan province.  The 2015 cases are genetically linked to the case with onset in August 2014.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger and Sierra Leone from 26 to 29 February and will be repeated from 25 to 28 March. The March round of NIDs will also include Mauritania. All campaigns are using trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV).