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Polio this week as of 17 December 2014
 

  • For the first time ever, no cases of wild poliovirus have been reported in Africa in the last 4 months. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 11 August in Somalia.
  • In the north of Madagascar, supplementary immunization activities are currently underway in response to the outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1. National Immunization Days are planned for 19 – 23 January.

  

 

  


Wild Poliovirus (WPV) cases

Total cases

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013

Total in 2013 

Globally

333

360

416

- in endemic countries

314

136

160

- in non-endemic countries

19

224

256

  


Case breakdown by country


Countries

Year-to-date 2014

Year-to-date 2013


Total in
 2013

Date of most 
 recent case

 WPV1  WPV3   W1W3  Total   WPV1  WPV3  W1W3  Total 
Pakistan 283     283 75  
75 93 25-Nov-14
Afghanistan 25     25 11     11 14 17-Nov-14
Nigeria 6     6 50
  50 53 24-Jul-14
Somalia 5     5 183
  183 194 11-Aug-14
Equatorial Guinea 5     5       0  0 03-May-14
Iraq 2     2       0 0 07-Apr-14
Cameroon 5     5  4     4 4 09-Jul-14
Syria 1     1  17     17 35 21-Jan-14
Ethiopia      1     1 6     6 9 05-Jan-14
Kenya
    0 14     14 14 14-Jul-13
Total 333 0 0 333 360 0   360 416
Total in endemic countries      314 0 0 314 136 0
136 160   
 Total outbreak 19    0   0 19 224 0 0 224 256  

Data in WHO as of 17 December 2013 for 2013 data and 16 December 2014 for 2014 data.

Afghanistan

  • One new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case was reported in the past week from Garmser district of Hilmand province, which had not previously reported a case in 2014. The case, which is the country's most recent, had onset of paralysis on 17 November. The total number of WPV1 cases for 2014 in Afghanistan is now 25 compared to 11 at this time last year.
  • No cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) have been reported in Afghanistan in 2014.
  • Given the growing wild poliovirus type 1 outbreak in neighbouring Pakistan, Afghanistan continues to conduct supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) to limit the spread of imported polioviruses and to tackle residual endemic transmission. Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in high risk areas of the south and east using monovalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) type 1 on 21 – 23 December, and 11 - 13 January using bivalent OPV.

Nigeria

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Nigeria’s total WPV1 case count for 2014 remains 6, compared to 50 at this time last year. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 24 July in Sumaila Local Government Area (LGA), southern Kano state.
  • Over 4 months have passed since the last case of WPV1 was reported in Nigeria.
  • No new type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases were reported in Nigeria in the last week. The most recent case had onset of paralysis on 2 November in Ajingi district of Kano state. The total number of cVDPV2 cases for 2014 in Nigeria remains 28.
  • Large-scale Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) took place from 13 – 16 December across northern Nigeria. The national polio programme is currently finalizing supplementary immunization activity (SIA) plans for the first half of 2015, in order to optimize the use of vaccine types to further boost immunity to type 1 and 3 polioviruses and also address the need to interrupt cVDPV2 circulation. 

Pakistan

  • Seven new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Four are from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) 3 from Khyber Agency and 1 from South Waziristan); and 3 are from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province (2 from Peshawar district and 1 from Swat). The total number of WPV1 cases in Pakistan in 2014 is now 283, compared to 75 at this time last year. The most recent WPV1 case had onset of paralysis on 25 November, from Peshawar, KP.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. This most recent cVDPV2 case had onset of paralysis in Khyber Agency, FATA, on 16 September. The country has reported 20 cases of cVDPV2 in 2014.
  • Immunization activities are continuing with particular focus on known high-risk areas, in previously inaccessible areas of FATA. At exit and entry points of conflict-affected areas 100 permanent vaccination points are being used to reach internally displaced families as they move in and out of the inaccessible area. Over 1 million doses of vaccine have been used in the past few months to vaccinate people passing through transit points and in host communities, including over 850,000 children under 10 years old.

Central Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported this week. In 2014, 10 cases have been reported in central Africa: 5 in Cameroon and 5 in Equatorial Guinea.
  • Child Health Days including the use of trivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) are planned for 17 – 21 December in the Central African Republic (CAR). National Immunization Days (NIDs) are taking place from 16 – 19 December in Gabon. In Cameroon, subnational immunization days (SNIDs) using inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) are planned in refugee camps near the border with the CAR and in some areas of the north on the same dates. National Immunization Days (NIDs) are planned in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in CAR in January with dates to be confirmed.

Horn of Africa

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in the past week in countries of the Horn of Africa. The most recent case, which had onset of paralysis on 11 August, was from Hobyo district of Mudug province, central Somalia. The total number of cases that have been reported in the Horn of Africa in 2014 is six: 1 WPV1 in Ethiopia (date of onset of paralysis on 5 January) and 5 WPV1s in Somalia.
  • No cases of type 2 circulating vaccine derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) were reported in the past week. The most recent case of cVDPV2 had onset of paralysis in South Sudan on 12 September.
  • Following confirmation at the beginning of November of two cases of cVDPV2 in a refugee camp area of Unity state, South Sudan, outbreak response plans are in place to hold rounds of supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Subnational Immunization Days are taking place on 16 – 19 December and 20 – 23 January. The objective is to rapidly stop the transmission of cVDPV2 in the infected area, while further boosting immunity to type 1 wild poliovirus and to minimize the risk of renewed outbreaks following wild poliovirus re-introduction from any infected countries and areas.
  • National Immunization Days (NIDs) are taking place in Djibouti, Ethiopia and Somalia and Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) in Kenya and Sudan in December. SNIDs are scheduled in January in South Sudan, and NIDs in Somalia and Uganda.
  

Israel and West Bank and Gaza

  • Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has not been detected in environmental samples in Israel or the West Bank and Gaza Strip for more than 6 months. The most recent WPV positive sample was collected in southern Israel on 30 March. All environmental samples collected since April have been negative for WPV.

Middle East

  • No new wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases were reported in the past week. Three cases of WPV1 have been reported in the Middle East in 2014 - two in Iraq and one in Syria.
  • It has been 8 months since the last reported cases of WPV1 in the Middle East. The most recent case reported from Syria had onset of paralysis on 21 January, while the most recent case in Iraq occurred in Mada'in district, Baghdad-Resafa province, with onset of paralysis on 7 April.
  • Phase 2 of the Middle East Outbreak response is drawing to an end in December, and efforts are gearing up towards phase 3 of the outbreak response that will run from January until May. A Phase 3 planning meeting is scheduled for January 2015. 
     

West Africa

  • No wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) cases have been reported in West Africa in 2014. The most recent WPV1 case in the region occurred in Tahoua province, Niger, with onset of paralysis on 15 November 2012.
  • No case of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) has been reported in 2014. The last case of cVDPV2 was reported in Niger on 11 July 2013.
  • The Ebola crisis in western Africa is impacting on the implementation or polio eradication activities in Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. Supplementary immunization activities in these countries have been postponed and the quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance has markedly decreased this year.
  • Even as polio programme staff across West Africa support efforts to control the Ebola outbreak affecting the region, efforts are being made in those countries not affected by Ebola to vaccinate children against polio.
  • Subnational Immunization Days (SNIDs) are planned in Niger and tentatively for Mali in January.