This Week

Polio this week as of 18 May 2022

Headlines

  • Ahead of the WHO World Health Assembly (WHA) taking place from 22-28 May 2022, the GPEI has prepared two reports which will inform Member State discussions, namely on polio eradication, and on polio transition planning and post-certification.  The reports are available on this page.
  • In the latest “Coffee with Polio Experts” video series, we chat with Dr Ananda Bandyopadhyay, Deputy Director of Polio Technology, Research & Analytics, BMGF, about the new tool in GPEI’s kit to combat cVDPV2: novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2). In a two-part video, Ananda talks about development of the innovative vaccine and its pathway to rollout.
  • In Mozambique, a wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) was confirmed, linked to the virus detected in Malawi in February (itself linked to virus originating in Pakistan).  This case is tragic, in particular for the child and affected family.  However, given the WPV1 in Malawi, it is not unexpected and confirms the dangers associated with this outbreak.  Mozambique and Malawi are continuing to implement a multi-country polio emergency outbreak response.  Immediately following detection of this case, the Government of Mozambique publicly declared the outbreak a national public health emergency.  See ‘Mozambique’ section below for more.
  • Summary of new polioviruses this week:
     – Chad: one cVDPV2 case
    – Mozambique: one WPV1 case and three cVDPV2 cases
    – Niger: one cVDPV2 case and two positive environmental samples
    – Nigeria: three cVDPV2 cases and five positive environmental samples
    – Togo: one cVDPV2 case

Weekly country updates as of 18 May 2022

  • No new WPV1 or cVDPV2 viruses were reported this week. There is one WPV1 case reported in 2022 and four in 2021.  The total number of cVDPV2 cases remains 43.
  • No new WPV1 case was reported this week. There are two cases in 2022 The total number of WPV1 cases in 2021 remains one.  The total number of cVDPV2 cases remains eight.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are three cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are two cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are three cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are no cases reported in 2021.
  • One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported in Hadjer Lamis making it the first in 2022. There are no cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are two cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week.  There are no reported cases in 2021.
  • Five cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported; two in Arta and three in Djibouti province. There are 10 positive environmental samples reported in the country, linked to the virus circulating in Yemen.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. The number of 2022 cases remains 37. There are 28 cases from 2021.
  • No cVDPV2 positive environmental sample was reported. There are 14 positive samples reported in the country.
  • An internal surveillance review is scheduled for this month, as part of preparations for the expected Outbreak Response Assessment.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are ten cases reported in 2021.
  • No cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported this week. There are nine positive samples reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are six cases in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are 3 cases in the country which are linked to the Jigawa outbreak in Nigeria in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 3 (cVDPV3) was reported this week. There is one case reported in the country in 2022.

 

  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are three cVDPV2 cases in the country in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (cVDPV1) was reported this week. The number of 2021 cases remains 13. There is one case in 2022.
  • No case of WPV1 was reported this week. In February, the country reported the first WPV1 case on the continent since 2016, with onset of paralysis in November 2021.
  • Following the second of a series of multi-country outbreak response implemented in April , preparations are ongoing in both Malawi and neighbouring countries for the subsequent campaigns.
  • In total, at least four, multi-country campaigns will be implemented.  Round two was successfully implemented across the country, with almost 3 million children reached, with independent monitoring indicating 94% coverage achieved.
  • Lessons learned from the first two rounds will help inform preparations for the subsequent campaigns, including focusing on further strengthened coordination at all levels, microplanning, training and supervision, social mobilization and increased social mobilization and mass media engagement.
  • At the same time, surveillance continues to be strengthened including at critical subnational levels.
  • No cVDPV2 positive environmental sample was reported this week. There are seven positive samples linked to the Jigawa outbreak in 2021.
  • On 15 May 2022, the GPEI received the notification through the Global Polio Laboratory Network of a WPV1 from Mozambique, isolated from an AFP case in the country.  Initial sequencing of the virus suggests it is linked to the virus detected in Malawi in February, though further analyses are ongoing.
  • The case had onset of paralysis on 25 March, from Changara district, Tête province.
  • Mozambique is also affected by a cVDPV2, with three cases reported this week; two in Nampula and one in Manica. There are four cVDPV2 cases reported in 2022 and two in 2021.
  • The Government of Mozambique has declared both strains to be national public health emergencies.
  • This case is of course tragic, particularly for the child and the family affected.  However, given detection of WPV1 in Malawi in February, it is not unexpected.  It confirms the dangers associated with this virus, and how rapidly it can spread across wide geographic reasons and hence the need to implement large-scale response across large geographic areas.
  • Mozambique has been actively participating in the multi-country emergency outbreak response implemented in south-east Africa in response to the detected WPV, with two rounds already conducted, the most recent at end April, with more than 4.2 million children vaccinated.  This case had onset of paralysis before the start of the multi-country campaigns, and therefore does not represent breakthrough transmission following the start of the campaigns.
  • Disease surveillance in the country continues to be strengthened, together with neighbouring countries, as part of the ongoing multi-country response.
  • A full case investigation is now being launched, supported by the African Rapid Response Team, in order to more clearly identify the risk associated with this case, and further sensitive and target response activities as needed.
  • At the same time, the response to cVDPV2 is also continuing, with focus being on rapidly raising immunity to both type 1 and type 2 polio among the population.
  • Detection of this most recent case underscores the appropriateness of the large-scale, rapid, multi-country emergency outbreak response across south-east Africa, in line with revised international polio outbreak response SOPs.
  • The overriding priority is to continue to implement the subregional emergency response, by continuing to conduct large-scale, rapid and high-quality response campaigns.
  • The primary concern is to ensure no further children and families are affected by paralysis, and to rapidly again stop this outbreak once and for all.
  • One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported in Maradi making it the first in 2022. There are 17 cases reported in 2021.
  • Two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported; one each in Maradi and Niamey.
  • Three cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) were reported; two in Kwara and one in Sokoto bringing the number of 2022 cases to 24. The number of 2021 cases remains 415.
  • Five cVDPV2 positive environmental samples were reported; one each in Bauchi and Lagos and three in Zamfara.
  • No cVDPV3 positive environmental samples were reported this week.
  • Preparations are underway for a bOPV campaign using fixed sites and mobile teams in Bethlehem and Jerusalem, with R1 in mid-May and R2 a month later.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are 17 cases reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are five cases in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are two cases reported in 2022. There is one case reported in 2021.
  • With the exception of Somaliland, the country concluded its mOPV2 NID in March 2022, covering six states. Somaliland has not yet confirmed its NID dates. Of the 2,669,790 under-five children targeted in South, Central and Puntland, approximately 94% administrative coverage has been reported.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are 9 cVDPV2 cases reported in 2021.
  • One case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported in Savanes making it the first in 2022.
  • No cVDPV2 positive environmental sample was reported this week. There are two positive samples linked to the N’Djamena outbreak in Chad reported in 2021.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. There are two cases reported in 2021.
  • The national reference laboratory in Kiev has resumed routine testing of AFP cases, from 26 April, and transportation of samples from provinces to Kiev as resumed.
  • Routine immunization is continuing, though exact coverage and monitoring data are at this time difficult to verify.
  • No case of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) was reported this week. The number of cVDPV2 cases stands at 5 in 2022 and 61 in 2021. There are also 3 cVDPV1 cases in 2021.
  • Intensive efforts are underway to access Yemen’s northern governorates with polio vaccine, but until that happens, the outbreak’s upward trajectory is expected to remain high.

For more country information, please visit the respective pages within the Outbreak and Endemic country sections of the GPEI website.